100 years of the Treaty of Lausanne

100 years of the Treaty of Lausanne

 

24 July 2023 marks the 100th anniversary of the historic Treaty of Lausanne. In this context, know why and for what reason the Treaty of Lausanne was made.

Photo source: Collected from internet

Treaty of Lausanne:
The Treaty of Lausanne was signed on 24 July 1923 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The agreement was named after the city of Lausanne, “Treaty of Lausanne”. The official name of the speech is “Treaty of Peace & Exchange of War Prisoners with Turki” Signed at Laussane. Article 143 of the treaty was written in French. It was approved by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 23 August 1923. It was also approved by the legislatures of other states on 16 July 1924. The treaty came into force on 6 August 1924. On one side of the speech were the representatives of Turkey, the successor of the Ottoman Empire, and on the other side were the allies of the United Kingdom, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Romania and the former Yugoslavia.

Photo source: Collected from internet

Background:
In 1919, the Turkish Nationalist Movement was created. On 23 April 1920, they formed a new legislature called the Grand National Assembly as an alternative government to Constantinople in Ankara, Turkey’s Asian side. The leader of this government was Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a famous general of the Ottoman army. On 10 August 1920, the victorious Allies of World War I signed the Treaty of Serves with the Ottoman Empire. Although the terms of the Sevres Argument were extremely harsh and one-sided, the entire local empire had to be loyal to them because most of the territory was occupied by the Allies. The Ankara-based government rejected the Treaty of Sevres and declared war on Greece, France

, and the United Kingdom, and in 1920 and 1921, respectively, on Armenia and Georgia. It is known in history as the Turkish War of Independence. In 1920 they also clashed with the Ottoman government based in Constantinople. The Soviet Union supported the Ankara-based government in this war. In October 1922, the Ankara-based government won against the Ottoman government based in Greece, France, Armenia, and Constantinople, and the Anatolia peninsula and Eastern Thrace fell to Turkish nationalists. On 11 October 1922, a ceasefire was signed between the two sides. On 28 October 1922, Allies wrote to Kemal Atatürk, the head of Ankara, and Mehmed VI, the Ottoman sultan, to renegotiate the power. Angered by this, Kamal Pasha reached the center of power by announcing the abolition of the Sultanate on November 1. His government participated in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lausanne. After long negotiations, the Treaty of Lausanne was finally signed on 24 July 1923. Treaty of Lausanne called The birth certificate of Turkey.

Contents:
The borders of present-day Turkey were determined by the Treaty of Lausanne. At the same time, the borders of Greece, Iran, Syria and Iraq were determined. The treaty stated that Turkey would no longer lay claim to any of the former provinces and would recognize British occupation of Cyprus and Italian rights over the Dodecanese. On the other hand, the Allies will abandon Turkey’s demand for autonomy for Kurdistan. Immediately, Turkey will renounce Armenia. And the Allies would relinquish their claim to influence over Turkey and impose no control over Turkey’s finances or armed forces. A ban on Turkish tolls was imposed on ships sailing through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, which flow through Turkey. But later another treaty was signed in Montreal, Switzerland on 20 July 1936 to control the two straits. The agreement leaves the control of the Straits to Turkey.

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